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Monday, February 11

  1. page Telemedicine - Nigeria case study edited ... Source: http://wikieducator.org/images/d/df/PID_536.pdf Finally, take a look at the following…
    ...
    Source: http://wikieducator.org/images/d/df/PID_536.pdf
    Finally, take a look at the following video, which provides a good overview of the promise telemedicine holds for Nigeria as attested to by many optimistic local health officials and physicians:
    EJW
    (view changes)
    11:01 am
  2. page Telemedicine - Nigeria case study edited Telemedicine: Nigeria Case Study The 2007-2008 Ministry of Health/NigCom Sat-1 Initiative {Sc…

    Telemedicine: Nigeria Case Study
    The 2007-2008 Ministry of Health/NigCom Sat-1 Initiative
    {Screen Shot 2012-12-18 at 7.53.30 AM.png}
    Nigeria suffers from many of the health problems that plague large swathes of sub-Saharan Africa and those living in tropical zones around the world. Its high population density (167.5 residents per square km, according to the UN, while sub-Saharan Africa overall has a population density of 36.2) make the spread of disease and illness all the more challenging (see maps below for population density in all of Africa and in Nigeria specifically):
    ...
    Map {Population_density_map_of_Nigerian_states_-_English.png} Nigeria Population Density Map (by district)
    In 2007, the Nigerian Ministry of Health worked with the National Space Research and Development Agency to embark on a pilot project using telemedicine to improve care to Nigerians living in rural areas, far from the country's professional health facilities. Specifically, the government aimed to capitalize on telemedicine's strengths to offer:
    Specialist referral services
    ...
    The initiative began with eight remote terminals that would serve as stationary nodes at which patients could access care from medical professionals living in Abuja or Lagos, and a single mobile unit that would travel in more remote areas:
    {Screen Shot 2012-12-18 at 7.53.17 AM.png}
    ForTechnical Infrastructure
    For
    the technical
    ...
    in December 2011.2011 (unfortunately, little data seems to be available on the renewal of telemedicine programs in the country since then).
    However, the program showed great promise during it's short run. Each terminal, along with the mobile unit, was equipped with diagnostic equipment including:
    General examination cameras
    ...
    Ophthalmoscopes
    Dermascopes
    Results
    The terminals in Owo, Owerri, Gombe, Maiduguri, and Ibadan came online first. Within the first six months of operating, the remote centers had assisted in the diagnosis of numerous cases of malaria and cataracts:
    Total patients seen
    ...
    521
    Source: http://www.un-spider.org/sites/default/files/james_3rd_ws-bonn_23_10_09.pdf
    TakeDoubts About Preparedness
    A report released shortly after the initiative began demonstrated the enthusiasm of Nigerian health professionals for the potential of telemedicine but raised doubts about their knowledge of how to incorporate telemedicine into their practices and their preparedness to utilize the new medium effectively. Entitled "Knowledge and Perception of Telemedicine and E-health by Some Nigerian Health Care Practitioners," the study was conducted by faculty from the Obafemi Awolowo University in the city of Ife and the University of Ibadan. In the report, the authors noted that despite the enormous promise of telemedicine, the health care providers tasked with operating the program appeared to lack sufficient information and awareness about the medium.
    In July 2007, just as the aforementioned telemedicine initiative was beginning, the study asked 200 healthcare providers including doctors, nurses, pharmacists, laboratory scientists, medical records officers radiographers, senior nursing and senior medical students about their knowledge and views on telemedicine. Results indicated that 83 (41.5%) of the respondents had poor knowledge of telehealth and only 42 (21%) were aware of the country’s telemedicine programme. However, 141 (70.5%) responded that they will use telehealth services and 138 (69%) said they will recommend its use to others. Overall, 162 (81%) of the respondents had positive views about the relevance and benefits of telemedicine's introduction to the Nigerian health system.
    {Screen Shot 2012-12-18 at 8.41.50 AM.png}
    The study was also interesting for what it revealed about the views of Nigerian caregivers about the quality of health care in the country. Overall, 68 (34%) respondents rated the quality of Nigerian health systems as poor while only 2 (1%) rated it as excellent; 103 respondents (51.5%) said it was fair while 21 respondents (10.5%) viewed it as good.
    The survey also pointed to the potential for resistance to telemedicine among medical professionals, a phenomenon not uncommon in either the developed or the developing world as physicians are reluctant to place their trust in new, unfamiliar systems. In response to the question, "Will you use telehealth if necessary?" 141 respondents (70.5%) said yes, but 59 respondents (29.5%) said no, suggesting that nearly a third of Nigerian medical professionals are skeptical about the usefulness of telemedicine.
    The authors concluded that these results highlighted the need for wider public education--specifically among the medical community--prior to forming and implementing government policy on telemedicine.
    Source: http://wikieducator.org/images/d/df/PID_536.pdf
    Finally, take
    a look
    ...
    by many optimistic local health
    (view changes)
    11:01 am
  3. page Telemedicine - Nigeria case study edited ... {Screen Shot 2012-12-18 at 7.53.30 AM.png} Nigeria suffers from many of the health problems …
    ...
    {Screen Shot 2012-12-18 at 7.53.30 AM.png}
    Nigeria suffers from many of the health problems that plague large swathes of sub-Saharan Africa and those living in tropical zones around the world. Its high population density (167.5 residents per square km, according to the UN, while sub-Saharan Africa overall has a population density of 36.2) make the spread of disease and illness all the more challenging (see maps below for population density in all of Africa and in Nigeria specifically):
    ...
    Density Map {Population_density_map_of_Nigerian_states_-_English.png}{Population_density_map_of_Nigerian_states_-_English.png}
    In 2007,
    ...
    of Health embarkedworked with the National Space Research and Development Agency to embark on a
    ...
    health facilities. TheSpecifically, the government aimed to capitalize on telemedicine's strengths to offer:
    Specialist referral services
    Remote videoconference consultations between patients and physicians
    Remote monitoring of data
    Education about medical problems
    Online record-keeping and information databank services
    The
    initiative began
    {Screen Shot 2012-12-18 at 7.53.17 AM.png}
    EachFor the technical infrastructure needed to connecting each node and terminal, the initiative relied on NigCom Sat-1, a Chinese-built satellite ordered by the Nigerian government and launched in May 2007. The satellite links also allowed Nigerian caregivers to consult with partners in Europe and the United States in the event additional consultations were needed. Sadly for the continuation of the project, the NigCom Sat-1 failed in orbit after running out of power to due a solar array anomaly. The telemedicine initiative was forced to cease operating at the time. In 2009, the Nigerian government signed a contract with China for a new satellite, which was delivered in December 2011.
    However, the program showed great promise during it's short run. Each
    terminal, along
    General examination cameras
    Image and illumination systems
    ...
    Ophthalmoscopes
    Dermascopes
    The terminals in Owo, Owerri, Gombe, Maiduguri, and Ibadan came online first. Within the first six months of operating, the remote centers had assisted in the diagnosis of numerous cases of malaria and cataracts:
    Total patients seen
    Cases of Malaria diagnosed
    Cases of Cataracts diagnosed
    Owo
    359
    40
    31
    Owerri
    767
    227
    140
    Gombe
    2,230
    491
    114
    Maiduguri
    4,428
    994
    600
    Ibadan
    1,147
    521
    Source: http://www.un-spider.org/sites/default/files/james_3rd_ws-bonn_23_10_09.pdf

    Take a look at the following video, which provides a good overview of the promise telemedicine holds for Nigeria as attested to by many local health officials and physicians:
    (view changes)
    11:01 am
  4. page Telemedicine - Nigeria case study edited Telemedicine: Nigeria Case Study The 2007-2008 Ministry of Health/NigCom Sat-1 Initiative {Sc…

    Telemedicine: Nigeria Case Study
    The 2007-2008 Ministry of Health/NigCom Sat-1 Initiative
    {Screen Shot 2012-12-18 at 7.53.30 AM.png}
    Nigeria suffers from many of the health problems that plague large swathes of sub-Saharan Africa and those living in tropical zones around the world. Its high population density (167.5 residents per square km, according to the UN, while sub-Saharan Africa overall has a population density of 36.2) make the spread of disease and illness all the more challenging (see maps below for population density in all of Africa and in Nigeria specifically):
    ...
    Density Map {Population_density_map_of_Nigerian_states_-_English.png} Nigeria Population Density Map (by district)
    In
    {Population_density_map_of_Nigerian_states_-_English.png}
    In
    2007, the
    ...
    of Health worked with the National Space Research and Development Agency to embarkembarked on a
    ...
    health facilities. Specifically, the government aimed to capitalize on telemedicine's strengths to offer:
    Specialist referral services
    Remote videoconference consultations between patients and physicians
    Remote monitoring of data
    Education about medical problems
    Online record-keeping and information databank services
    The
    The initiative began
    {Screen Shot 2012-12-18 at 7.53.17 AM.png}
    Technical Infrastructure
    For the technical infrastructure needed to connecting each node and terminal, the initiative relied on NigCom Sat-1, a Chinese-built satellite ordered by the Nigerian government and launched in May 2007. The satellite links also allowed Nigerian caregivers to consult with partners in Europe and the United States in the event additional consultations were needed. Sadly for the continuation of the project, the NigCom Sat-1 failed in orbit after running out of power to due a solar array anomaly. The telemedicine initiative was forced to cease operating at the time. In 2009, the Nigerian government signed a contract with China for a new satellite, which was delivered in December 2011 (unfortunately, little data seems to be available on the renewal of telemedicine programs in the country since then).
    However, the program showed great promise during it's short run. Each
    Each terminal, along
    General examination cameras
    Image and illumination systems
    ...
    Ophthalmoscopes
    Dermascopes
    Results
    The terminals in Owo, Owerri, Gombe, Maiduguri, and Ibadan came online first. Within the first six months of operating, the remote centers had assisted in the diagnosis of numerous cases of malaria and cataracts:
    Total patients seen
    Cases of Malaria diagnosed
    Cases of Cataracts diagnosed
    Owo
    359
    40
    31
    Owerri
    767
    227
    140
    Gombe
    2,230
    491
    114
    Maiduguri
    4,428
    994
    600
    Ibadan
    1,147
    521
    Source: http://www.un-spider.org/sites/default/files/james_3rd_ws-bonn_23_10_09.pdf
    Doubts About Preparedness
    A report released shortly after the initiative began demonstrated the enthusiasm of Nigerian health professionals for the potential of telemedicine but raised doubts about their knowledge of how to incorporate telemedicine into their practices and their preparedness to utilize the new medium effectively. Entitled "Knowledge and Perception of Telemedicine and E-health by Some Nigerian Health Care Practitioners," the study was conducted by faculty from the Obafemi Awolowo University in the city of Ife and the University of Ibadan. In the report, the authors noted that despite the enormous promise of telemedicine, the health care providers tasked with operating the program appeared to lack sufficient information and awareness about the medium.
    In July 2007, just as the aforementioned telemedicine initiative was beginning, the study asked 200 healthcare providers including doctors, nurses, pharmacists, laboratory scientists, medical records officers radiographers, senior nursing and senior medical students about their knowledge and views on telemedicine. Results indicated that 83 (41.5%) of the respondents had poor knowledge of telehealth and only 42 (21%) were aware of the country’s telemedicine programme. However, 141 (70.5%) responded that they will use telehealth services and 138 (69%) said they will recommend its use to others. Overall, 162 (81%) of the respondents had positive views about the relevance and benefits of telemedicine's introduction to the Nigerian health system.
    {Screen Shot 2012-12-18 at 8.41.50 AM.png}
    The study was also interesting for what it revealed about the views of Nigerian caregivers about the quality of health care in the country. Overall, 68 (34%) respondents rated the quality of Nigerian health systems as poor while only 2 (1%) rated it as excellent; 103 respondents (51.5%) said it was fair while 21 respondents (10.5%) viewed it as good.
    The survey also pointed to the potential for resistance to telemedicine among medical professionals, a phenomenon not uncommon in either the developed or the developing world as physicians are reluctant to place their trust in new, unfamiliar systems. In response to the question, "Will you use telehealth if necessary?" 141 respondents (70.5%) said yes, but 59 respondents (29.5%) said no, suggesting that nearly a third of Nigerian medical professionals are skeptical about the usefulness of telemedicine.
    The authors concluded that these results highlighted the need for wider public education--specifically among the medical community--prior to forming and implementing government policy on telemedicine.
    Source: http://wikieducator.org/images/d/df/PID_536.pdf
    Finally, take
    Take a look
    ...
    by many optimistic local health
    ...
    and physicians:
    EJW


    (view changes)
    11:01 am
  5. page Telemedicine edited ... As a brief overview of the history of telemedicine, we can date its earliest practice back to …
    ...
    As a brief overview of the history of telemedicine, we can date its earliest practice back to smoke signals sent by neighboring villages to warn one another of health risks. In the modern era of telemedicine, however, as early as 1959 the Nebraska Psychiatric Institute was one of the first medical facilities in the world to use a closed circuit television link with the Norfolk Hospital, located 112 miles away. The link was used by doctors who consulted with each other on patient cases and also gave psychiatric consultations to patients on the other end of the link.
    {http://telehealth.gcatt.gatech.edu/Images/Nebraska-NPI/CCTV1.jpg} {http://telehealth.gcatt.gatech.edu/Images/Nebraska-NPI/group_therapy1.jpg} {http://telehealth.gcatt.gatech.edu/Images/Nebraska-NPI/Consult1.jpg}
    EJW
    whyWhy is Telemedicine Necessary?
    To begin with a good way of understanding why telemedicine holds such enormous potential, take a look at this map:
    ...
    In other words, there are populations around the world that are woefully short of doctors--tragically, many of these people also suffer from some of the world's most deadly ailments and health problems. Even in developed countries, residents of rural areas often live far from the facilities and physicians with the expertise and equipment required for treatment. Training local doctors and dispatching medical missions are critically important approaches, but are difficult to scale because of cost and time. Telemedicine--the use of modern communication technology to provide clinical health care from remote distances--is an increasingly important part of the solution.
    Here's a short video explaining how telemedicine can help save time and money for a patient while ensuring she has access to necessary health care:
    EJW
    provideWhat are some services that telemedicine can provide?
    Specialist referral services typically involves of a specialist assisting a general practitioner in rendering a diagnosis. This may involve a patient "seeing" a specialist over a live, remote consult or the transmission of diagnostic images and/or video along with patient data to a specialist for viewing later. Recent surveys have shown a rapid increase in the number of specialty and subspecialty areas that have successfully used telemedicine. Radiology continues to make the greatest use of telemedicine with thousands of images "read" by remote providers each year. Other major specialty areas include: dermatology, ophthalmology, mental health, cardiology and pathology. According to reports and studies, almost 50 different medical subspecialties have successfully used telemedicine.
    ...
    Medical education provides continuing medical education credits for health professionals and special medical education seminars for targeted groups in remote locations.
    Consumer medical and health information includes the use of the Internet for consumers to obtain specialized health information and on-line discussion groups to provide peer-to-peer support.
    EJW
    deliveryDelivery Mechanisms
    Networked programs link tertiary care hospitals and clinics with outlying clinics and community health centers in rural or suburban areas. The links may use dedicated high-speed lines or the Internet for telecommunication links between sites. Studies by the several agencies within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services place the number of existing telemedicine networks in the United States at roughly 200. These programs involve close to 2,000 medical institutions throughout the country. Of these programs, it is estimated that about half (100) are actively providing patient care services on a daily basis. The others are only occasionally used for patient care and are primarily for administrative or educational use.
    ...
    Home to monitoring center links are used for cardiac, pulmonary or fetal monitoring, home care and related services that provide care to patients in the home. Often normal phone lines are used to communicate directly between the patient and the center although some systems use the Internet.
    Web-based e-health patient service sites provide direct consumer outreach and services over the Internet. Under telemedicine, these include those sites that provide direct patient care.
    EJW
    specializationSpecializations within Telemedicine
    The World Health Organization (WHO) has focused on four specializations within telemedicine:
    ...
    Texas A&M reaches rural patients via Telepsychology: http://www.fiercemobilehealthcare.com/story/tele-psychology-picks-steam-rural-areas/2011-03-31
    University of Kentucky reaching children and families in rural Appalachia: http://p20.education.uky.edu/labs/telehealth-lab/
    DPC
    applicationWhat are some of the most interesting applications for telemedicine today?
    The CellScope Project: Led by Dr. Daniel Fletcher, a team at UC-Berkeley has developed a compact optical microscope that be clipped on to any mobile phone with a camera to enable mobile microscopy. Optical microscopy is essential for diagnosing infectious diseases but the absence of the requisite equipment and personnel often serves as an obstacle to proper treatment. CellScope was designed to push the boundaries of telemedicine to incorporate on-site disease diagnosis by taking advantage of the proliferation of reliable wireless communications networks in the developing world to transmit patient data. Jeannette Nancy Chang, who works with the CellScope team, published a paper earlier this year describing an automated method of diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) by running the microscopic imagery obtained by CellScope through an algorithm. She writes, "Though TB garners relatively little attention in high-income countries today, it remains the second leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide (second only to HIV/AIDS). In 2010 alone, 1.2-1.5 million deaths were attributed at least in part to TB. Low-income parts of the world see a disproportionately high fraction of TB-related fatalities, with approximately 85% of TB cases occurring in Asia and Africa." CellScope's developers believe that the product can "reduce technician training requirements and improve diagnostic consistency, further lowering the barriers to accurate and timely diagnosis of tuberculosis in the developing world." Here's a quick video from Dr. Fletcher explaining the project:
    ...
    http://www.health.ny.gov/professionals/doctors/conduct/telemedicine.htm
    http://www.med.nyu.edu/content?ChunkIID=13621
    EJW
    barrierBarriers to Telemedicine
    Herbert Rogove, David Macarthur, Bart Demaerschalk and Paul Vespa from the University of California - Los Angeles identified four types of barriers to telemedicine: cultural barriers, administrative barriers, technological barriers and regulatory barriers. They exist in both the developed and the developing world.
    ...
    --Meena Rajput, Sharma University of Health Sciences
    Rogove, Herbert, David Mcarthur, Bart M. Demaerschalk, and Paul M. Vespa. "Barriers to Telemedicine: Survey of Current Users in Acute Care Units." Telemedicine and E-Health 18.1 (2012): MARY ANN LIEBERT, INC.
    YL
    chinaThe China Case
    In order to improve the efficiency of medicine, Yajiong Xue and Huigang Liang assess the current conditions and discovered significant cultural and regulatory barriers. They propose potential policy options based on three dimensions: the user dimension, system dimension and the environmental dimension.
    ...
    Allocating more resources to develop telemedicine programs in local hospitals
    Xue, Yajiong, and Huigang Liang. "Result Filters." National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
    YL
    nextWhat's Next?
    These are potential policy proposals for developing nations to improve their tele-medicine practices. They are supported empirically by international organizations or reports of consulting firms. However, these proposals tend to favor with more resources to begin with. Smaller & weaker nations definitely needs more attention from the international community.
    ...
    Study Group II 4th Study Period, 2010
    Utilizing all kinds of mobile devices: the United States and UK have been utilizing all kinds of mobile devices including mobile phones, tablets and personal computers. However, developing nations like China and India have not been doing so. Further, the telecommunication network is relatively underdeveloped. In the short run, they should encourage remote health care provided through mobile phones. Utilizing tablets and personal computers are not possible without long term strategies
    YL
    (view changes)
    11:01 am
  6. page Telemedicine edited ... As a brief overview of the history of telemedicine, we can date its earliest practice back to …
    ...
    As a brief overview of the history of telemedicine, we can date its earliest practice back to smoke signals sent by neighboring villages to warn one another of health risks. In the modern era of telemedicine, however, as early as 1959 the Nebraska Psychiatric Institute was one of the first medical facilities in the world to use a closed circuit television link with the Norfolk Hospital, located 112 miles away. The link was used by doctors who consulted with each other on patient cases and also gave psychiatric consultations to patients on the other end of the link.
    {http://telehealth.gcatt.gatech.edu/Images/Nebraska-NPI/CCTV1.jpg} {http://telehealth.gcatt.gatech.edu/Images/Nebraska-NPI/group_therapy1.jpg} {http://telehealth.gcatt.gatech.edu/Images/Nebraska-NPI/Consult1.jpg}
    EJW
    whyWhy is Telemedicine Necessary?
    To begin with a good way of understanding why telemedicine holds such enormous potential, take a look at this map:
    ...
    In other words, there are populations around the world that are woefully short of doctors--tragically, many of these people also suffer from some of the world's most deadly ailments and health problems. Even in developed countries, residents of rural areas often live far from the facilities and physicians with the expertise and equipment required for treatment. Training local doctors and dispatching medical missions are critically important approaches, but are difficult to scale because of cost and time. Telemedicine--the use of modern communication technology to provide clinical health care from remote distances--is an increasingly important part of the solution.
    Here's a short video explaining how telemedicine can help save time and money for a patient while ensuring she has access to necessary health care:
    EJW
    provideWhat are some services that telemedicine can provide?
    Specialist referral services typically involves of a specialist assisting a general practitioner in rendering a diagnosis. This may involve a patient "seeing" a specialist over a live, remote consult or the transmission of diagnostic images and/or video along with patient data to a specialist for viewing later. Recent surveys have shown a rapid increase in the number of specialty and subspecialty areas that have successfully used telemedicine. Radiology continues to make the greatest use of telemedicine with thousands of images "read" by remote providers each year. Other major specialty areas include: dermatology, ophthalmology, mental health, cardiology and pathology. According to reports and studies, almost 50 different medical subspecialties have successfully used telemedicine.
    ...
    Little Intelligent Communities (LINCOs): Beginning in 1998, a team at MIT developed the LINCOs project, which was primarily aimed at bringing communications technologies to poor, rural communities, particularly in Latin America. As part of its focus on using ICT to improve health outcomes, the team developed a low-cost (approximately $8,000) portable telemedcine kit consisting of a portable computer and several medical peripherals, including a digital stethoscope, an ECG recorder and a medical imaging system, all housed within a durable case. The kit was aimed at allowing a health practitioner in a remote area to capture patient data in the form of audio, video, and images in a asynchronous fashion and forward them over the Internet to a doctor for a diagnosis.
    Operation Village Health: Begun by the Center for Connected Health in Boston, OVH provides health services in two Cambodian villages using a few cameras and a handful of donated x-ray, ultrasound, and EKG machines. Doctors at Massachusetts General Hospital and Brigham and Women’s Hospital provide remote consultations for these patients at no charge. By using telemedicine, local doctors are able to learn from more experienced physicians across the globe--nurses in Cambodia provide a diagnosis and outline treatment strategies before e-mailing patient data to Boston doctors, who then revise these proposals as they see fit. With practice, local nurses are better able to recognize particular diseases and devise treatment options.
    EJW
    http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/09/health/nantucket-hospital-uses-telemedicine-as-bridge-to-mainland.html?pagewanted=all
    http://www.nantuckethospital.org/Programs/Telemedicine.htm
    (view changes)
    11:00 am
  7. page Telemedicine edited ... As a brief overview of the history of telemedicine, we can date its earliest practice back to …
    ...
    As a brief overview of the history of telemedicine, we can date its earliest practice back to smoke signals sent by neighboring villages to warn one another of health risks. In the modern era of telemedicine, however, as early as 1959 the Nebraska Psychiatric Institute was one of the first medical facilities in the world to use a closed circuit television link with the Norfolk Hospital, located 112 miles away. The link was used by doctors who consulted with each other on patient cases and also gave psychiatric consultations to patients on the other end of the link.
    {http://telehealth.gcatt.gatech.edu/Images/Nebraska-NPI/CCTV1.jpg} {http://telehealth.gcatt.gatech.edu/Images/Nebraska-NPI/group_therapy1.jpg} {http://telehealth.gcatt.gatech.edu/Images/Nebraska-NPI/Consult1.jpg}
    EJW
    whyWhy is Telemedicine Necessary?
    To begin with a good way of understanding why telemedicine holds such enormous potential, take a look at this map:
    ...
    In other words, there are populations around the world that are woefully short of doctors--tragically, many of these people also suffer from some of the world's most deadly ailments and health problems. Even in developed countries, residents of rural areas often live far from the facilities and physicians with the expertise and equipment required for treatment. Training local doctors and dispatching medical missions are critically important approaches, but are difficult to scale because of cost and time. Telemedicine--the use of modern communication technology to provide clinical health care from remote distances--is an increasingly important part of the solution.
    Here's a short video explaining how telemedicine can help save time and money for a patient while ensuring she has access to necessary health care:
    EJW
    provideWhat are some services that telemedicine can provide?
    Specialist referral services typically involves of a specialist assisting a general practitioner in rendering a diagnosis. This may involve a patient "seeing" a specialist over a live, remote consult or the transmission of diagnostic images and/or video along with patient data to a specialist for viewing later. Recent surveys have shown a rapid increase in the number of specialty and subspecialty areas that have successfully used telemedicine. Radiology continues to make the greatest use of telemedicine with thousands of images "read" by remote providers each year. Other major specialty areas include: dermatology, ophthalmology, mental health, cardiology and pathology. According to reports and studies, almost 50 different medical subspecialties have successfully used telemedicine.
    ...
    Little Intelligent Communities (LINCOs): Beginning in 1998, a team at MIT developed the LINCOs project, which was primarily aimed at bringing communications technologies to poor, rural communities, particularly in Latin America. As part of its focus on using ICT to improve health outcomes, the team developed a low-cost (approximately $8,000) portable telemedcine kit consisting of a portable computer and several medical peripherals, including a digital stethoscope, an ECG recorder and a medical imaging system, all housed within a durable case. The kit was aimed at allowing a health practitioner in a remote area to capture patient data in the form of audio, video, and images in a asynchronous fashion and forward them over the Internet to a doctor for a diagnosis.
    Operation Village Health: Begun by the Center for Connected Health in Boston, OVH provides health services in two Cambodian villages using a few cameras and a handful of donated x-ray, ultrasound, and EKG machines. Doctors at Massachusetts General Hospital and Brigham and Women’s Hospital provide remote consultations for these patients at no charge. By using telemedicine, local doctors are able to learn from more experienced physicians across the globe--nurses in Cambodia provide a diagnosis and outline treatment strategies before e-mailing patient data to Boston doctors, who then revise these proposals as they see fit. With practice, local nurses are better able to recognize particular diseases and devise treatment options.
    EJW
    http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/09/health/nantucket-hospital-uses-telemedicine-as-bridge-to-mainland.html?pagewanted=all
    http://www.nantuckethospital.org/Programs/Telemedicine.htm
    ...
    Physicians lack motivations to switch to telemedicine.
    Lack of telemedicine system maintenance team.
    System Dimension:
    Insufficient telecommunication infrastructure.
    Lack of health data standards.
    (view changes)
    11:00 am
  8. page Telemedicine edited Telemedicine {telemedicine20doctor20head20tv.jpeg} å Welcome to our Telemedicine Wiki. This p…

    Telemedicine
    {telemedicine20doctor20head20tv.jpeg} å
    Welcome to our Telemedicine Wiki. This page will serve as a forum for anyone interested in learning about or discussing telemedicine--its history, applications, potential, challenges, and future. Here's our team--we'll be the ones posting content here, but everyone should feel free to add comments if you see something that catches your eye:
    (view changes)
    11:00 am

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